# Halo

A magic place for coding

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## Problem

Design a stack which supports the following operations.

Implement the CustomStack class:

• CustomStack(int maxSize) Initializes the object with maxSize which is the maximum number of elements in the stack or do nothing if the stack reached the maxSize.
• void push(int x) Adds x to the top of the stack if the stack hasn’t reached the maxSize.
• int pop() Pops and returns the top of stack or -1 if the stack is empty.
• void inc(int k, int val) Increments the bottom k elements of the stack by val. If there are less than k elements in the stack, just increment all the elements in the stack.

## Problem

小红遇到了一名粉刷匠。这名粉刷匠有三种颜料，分别是红、黄、蓝。为了方便， 这三种颜料分别命名为 A，B，C。

现在，粉刷匠正在粉刷一面长度为3n 的墙壁。粉刷完之后，三种颜料的数目都相同。由于小红一不小心踢到了颜料桶，使得这面墙的每个地方都被染上了三种颜料中的其中一种，这很让粉刷匠头疼。

粉刷匠每次可以选择一段连续的墙壁进行粉刷，即全部粉刷上同一种颜色（A,B,C 三种中的其中一种）。粉刷匠想知道，他最少需要多少次粉刷才能使得三种颜料的数目都相同？

## Problem

We can use run-length encoding (i.e., RLE) to encode a sequence of integers. In a run-length encoded array of even length encoding (0-indexed), for all even i, encoding[i] tells us the number of times that the non-negative integer value encoding[i + 1] is repeated in the sequence.

• For example, the sequence arr = [8,8,8,5,5] can be encoded to be encoding = [3,8,2,5]. encoding = [3,8,0,9,2,5] and encoding = [2,8,1,8,2,5] are also valid RLE of arr.

Given a run-length encoded array, design an iterator that iterates through it.

Implement the RLEIterator class:

• RLEIterator(int[] encoded) Initializes the object with the encoded array encoded.
• int next(int n) Exhausts the next n elements and returns the last element exhausted in this way. If there is no element left to exhaust, return -1 instead.

## Problem

Implement the BSTIterator class that represents an iterator over the in-order traversal of a binary search tree (BST):

• BSTIterator(TreeNode root) Initializes an object of the BSTIterator class. The root of the BST is given as part of the constructor. The pointer should be initialized to a non-existent number smaller than any element in the BST.
• boolean hasNext() Returns true if there exists a number in the traversal to the right of the pointer, otherwise returns false.
• int next() Moves the pointer to the right, then returns the number at the pointer.
• boolean hasPrev() Returns true if there exists a number in the traversal to the left of the pointer, otherwise returns false.
• int prev() Moves the pointer to the left, then returns the number at the pointer.

Notice that by initializing the pointer to a non-existent smallest number, the first call to next() will return the smallest element in the BST.

You may assume that next() and prev() calls will always be valid. That is, there will be at least a next/previous number in the in-order traversal when next()/prev() is called.

## Problem

Implement the BSTIterator class that represents an iterator over the in-order traversal of a binary search tree (BST):

• BSTIterator(TreeNode root) Initializes an object of the BSTIterator class. The root of the BST is given as part of the constructor. The pointer should be initialized to a non-existent number smaller than any element in the BST.
• boolean hasNext() Returns true if there exists a number in the traversal to the right of the pointer, otherwise returns false.
• int next() Moves the pointer to the right, then returns the number at the pointer.

Notice that by initializing the pointer to a non-existent smallest number, the first call to next() will return the smallest element in the BST.

You may assume that next() calls will always be valid. That is, there will be at least a next number in the in-order traversal when next() is called.

## Problem

Write a program to count the number of days between two dates.

The two dates are given as strings, their format is YYYY-MM-DD as shown in the examples.

## Problem

Given a string date representing a Gregorian calendar date formatted as YYYY-MM-DD, return the day number of the year.

## Problem

A virus is spreading rapidly, and your task is to quarantine the infected area by installing walls.

The world is modeled as an m x n binary grid isInfected, where isInfected[i][j] == 0 represents uninfected cells, and isInfected[i][j] == 1 represents cells contaminated with the virus. A wall (and only one wall) can be installed between any two 4-directionally adjacent cells, on the shared boundary.

Every night, the virus spreads to all neighboring cells in all four directions unless blocked by a wall. Resources are limited. Each day, you can install walls around only one region (i.e., the affected area (continuous block of infected cells) that threatens the most uninfected cells the following night). There will never be a tie.

Return the number of walls used to quarantine all the infected regions. If the world will become fully infected, return the number of walls used.